Electric heating panels have been more and more popular for home and commercial & industry heating, the commonest type in the market is carbon crystal infrared heaters, however there are also some other kinds of heating elements which can be used in such electric heating panels, here under we list and make some compare,
1. carbon electric panel heaters
There are normally two formats of carbon heaters, carbon crystal and carbon fiber.
1) Epoxy resin carbon crystal heating sheet
This is the main format of carbon crystal heating nowadays. The technology is to print carbon paste (mixed with some other elements) onto a layer of epoxy resin sheet which will be clamped by other two ones, then all these three epoxy resin sheets will be pressed together and fitted by thousands of tons pressing machine.
—carbon and other elements can give out many far infra red rays which are good for health.
—epoxy resin sheet has very long life span under low temperature environment.
—epoxy resin and carbon paste can be fitted to each other stably.
—can not be high surface temperature, 130 degree C is normally the maximum bearing temperature of epoxy resin.
—not mature enough, this is a new technology, have not been approved by years of actual using test.
2) Mica sheet carbon crystal heating sheet
Similar technology as epoxy resin heating sheet; just replace epoxy resin sheet materials with mica sheets, same pressing technology.
—can be made to be big power, because the holding material sheets are mica which can bear as high temperature as at least 500 degree C.
—mica is not a good material to hold the carbon paste, and not stable sticked between one layer to another.
—carbon paste can not be printed evenly onto the mica sheet, this will cause some extremely hot points on the mica surface, this is a danger.
3) Carbon fiber heating sheet
The technology is also similar as carbon crystal heating sheet; just replace the internal carbon paste with carbon fiber which will be clamped between epoxy resin sheets as well.
This is the original technology of carbon heating sheet, very few companies are using this way now, because touch points between one carbon fiber to another sometimes get too hot and burned out.
People can not tell the appearance difference between carbon fiber sheet and carbon crystal sheet.
4) carbon fiber wire
The heating element is carbon fiber bunch which is inside a silicon/PVC/Teflon tube.
—the heat is evenly due to the evenly wire.
—wires can be shaped freely as request.
—each square meter power can be a bitter bigger than epoxy resin sheets.
—wires need to be fixed by adhesive tape etc onto a metal sheet back; the adhesive may chip after years of heating, this will cause a danger.
—can not be too many watts per square meter, due to the too thick carbon fiber bunch and tube materials.
2. metallic wire heating
NiCr alloy is mainly made of Ni, Cr and some iron, aluminum, carbon, silicon elements etc,
the best and economic heating metal heating element is NiCr alloy, can bear more than 1000 degree C, and also give out far infrared rays.
1) mica NiCr heating sheet
Technology is to twine a NiCr wire to a middle mica sheet which will be clamped by another two ones, after all three mica sheets will be pressed and fitted by machines.
This is the most advanced and stable technology for high power heating panels.
—can be made to be high power but small size electric panel heaters, such as 100*60cm/1000W panels, 120*60cm/1200W panels or even bigger.
—both NiCr heating element and Mica holding materials can bear very high temperature.
—the heating wire can be fixed stably inside the mica sheets.
—the panel front may get more cambered than epoxy resin sheets, due to more watts per square centimeters.
2) NiCr heating wire
It is heating wire similar as carbon fiber wire, outer tube material is also silicon, PVC or Teflon etc, and internal heating element is NiCr alloy.
—each square meter of the electric panel heaters can be with more watts, but not that good as Mica NiCr heating sheet. Outer tube material such as Teflon can bear maximum 200 degree C.
—wires can be shaped freely.
—wires have to be fixed regularly by adhesive tapes etc at the back of the metal sheet; this will be the same problems as carbon fiber heating wire, the adhesive tapes will get chipped after some years, then one heating wire line may touch to another, the touching point will get extremely hot and this may cause burned out even a fire.
—wires are a little thick, so same power panels can not be as slim as mica NiCr heating sheet.
There are also some other materials to hold NiCr heating element, such as silicon rubber sheets which cost too expensive, ceramic panel which is too heavy and fragile, and some other kinds of materials which may work but not cost effective.
Beware of that some China suppliers declaring that their panels’ heating element is silicon crystal, this is just a commercial speculation, it is actually also carbon, what they have done is just adding some little silicon element which have not been approved can improve the heating performance yet.